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US Army, Europe
Looking for more information from military/civilian
personnel assigned to or associated with the U.S. Army
in Germany from 1945 to 1989. If you have any
stories or thoughts on the subject, please contact me.
|(Source: STARS & STRIPES, July 29, 1953)
|Koenigstuhl VHF Radio-Telephone Station
The Koenigstuhl VHF Station, atop the Koenigstuhl mountain near Heidelberg, is a key element of the USAREUR radio telephone communications network. The 50 men stationed at this site belong to various units:
503rd Radio Operations Company
550th Radio Relay Company
7793rd Microwave Platoon
506th Long Lines Platoon
All of these units are part of the 4th Signal Service Group, headquartered at Heidelberg.
Site OIC is Capt F. W. Baertschiger.
|(Source: STARS & STRIPES, Nov 10, 1953)
|The 315th Signal Construction Battalion was reorganized and redesignated as the 315th Sig Bn (Microwave & Radio Relay) in late October. Concurrently, it was relieved from attachment to 7th Army and attached to the 4th Sig Svc Gp.
The battalion is located at Smiley Barracks, Karlsruhe and is commanded by Lt Col Lloyd Colvin. (The last CO of the 315th Sig Const Bn was Lt Col Halvor T. Daracaott.)
Historical Report, 1 July 1956-30 June 1957, 4th Signal Group, APO
the time of this report, the 4th Signal Group comprised the following
4th Sig Gp
Army Sig Svc Bn, Eur
Sig Bn (MW & RR) (1)
Avn Opr Det (Army) (2)
elements of the Group manned a wide-spread network of Signal installations
extending from Bocksberg, Germany in the Northeast to Maison Fort
(Orleans), France in the South and Cherbourg, France in the West.
The mission of the 4th Sig Gp was to operate
- the Army Command
and Administration Network (ACAN) in Europe;
- the teletype,
telephone, and radio system in the Heidelberg Area, serving HQ, USAREUR;
- a similar installation
at Saran, France;
- the cablehead
at Cherbourg, France; and
- the USAREUR Multi-Channel
Radio Telephone System (VHF/UHF).
All of these installations, except the multi-channel radio telephone
system, were operated by personnel of the US Army Signal Service Battalion,
Personnel of the 102nd Signal Battalion (Microwave & Radio Relay)
operated the Radio Telephone System.
Through the two battalions, the Group exercised operational control
over all fixed-plant signal communications facilities serving Headquarters,
USAREUR. Specifically, 4th Sig Gp operated the following installations
Center for HQ, USAREUR, including: Telephone, Teletype, Cryptographic,
inter-comm, and telecomm facilities.
Exchange to Campbell Barracks, Heidelberg.
Exchange to Hammonds Barracks, Seckenheim.
Cablehead and associated facilities.
Station at Neuostheim;
Station at Edingen;
Station at Pirmasens;
Station at Lohnsfeld;
manually operated radio circuits and nets.
Station at Orleans;
Station at Saran;
Station at St. Lye.
for the train of CINCUSAREUR.
radio facilities for CINCUSAREUR.
Property Account ECP-925 -
this account functioned as a small depot; its primary mission
was to provide storage, spare parts, and maintenance facilities
for the various German-manufactured equipment which was not
supported by normal depot resources.
Circuit Ordering Unit in France.
Aide Installation Team -
this organization was charged with the responsibility for installing
radio navigation equipment at the many Army airfields located
5th Aviation Operating Detachment (Army) was attached to the Group
on October 19, 1956.
The Det's primary mission was to provide a Flight Following System
for all Army Aviation in Europe. In order to accomplish this mission,
the Det set up seven Approach Control Teams; fourteen Air Traffic
Control Teams; and one Air Traffic Control Center.
about this battalion on the 102nd
Signal Battalion Page.
about this unit will be posted in the future on the 59th
ATC Battalion Page.
from Val Henneberg, 4th Sig Gp, 1953)
|I joined the
4th Signal Gp in 1953 at Mannheim-Seckenheim with my first assignment
as mess officer for the 7774 Signal Bn and was quartered in a little
hotel diagnally across from the Stadtgarten Officers Club in Heidelberg.
I later was made Company Commander of Headquarters Company, 4th Sig
Gp until Col Philip Rose (4th Gp CO) picked Capt Cecil Nutt, Hq Co
CO 7774, and myself to choose a team and move to Orleans, France to
build a microwave system from the German border to Orleans where we
would tie in with a system to be built by an Air Force team.
Our sector would tie into SHAPE at our Fountainbleu station. Within
three days, Cecil and myself had turned over our companies, chosen
three lieutenants who were excellent engineers with construction backgrounds
and 103 capable enlisted men including my 1st Sgt, my supply Sgt,
and Capt Nutt's motor Sgt. Capt Nutt commanded the detachment and
I acted a operations officer. By the end of six months we had in
operation a temporary 13 station system from Orleans to Thionville
delivering 48 telephone channels plus teletype.
Six months later the operating personnel moved into the permanent
brick combination stations and living quarters. During that year,
my construction teams often worked twelve hour days seven days a week
and had to be ordered to take two or three days off to offset fatigue.
The two tower crews built 13 self supporting microwave towers 40 feet
across at the base and each mounting 4 three meter dishes fed by copper,
gas filled coax. At that time it was state of the art. The installation
teams used French women we hired to wire in the frames for the GE
equipment which we had to use since the French government refused
to let us bring German AG Lorenz or Siemens Halske into the country.
After construction was complete, I went back to Germany to the southern
link based in Munich and Cecil Nutt, now Maj, was given command of
the Cherbourg transatlantic cable head along with the cable ship which
were also part of the 4th Gp. Imagine a US Army Signal Officer with
an oceangoing ship in his command.
Incidently, while in Munich I met a lovely German girl with whom,
last November, I celebrated our 48th anniversary. Sorry if I rambled
but reminiscing is enjoyable.
Val G. Henneberg, USA Ret.
from Phil Konitshek, I&M Section)
|I was with the
4th Sig Grp from November 1958 to October 1960. I was based in the
I & M (Installation and Maintenance) Section.
We maintained all the microwave towers of the 102nd Signal Battalion
in Germany & France. I was in charge of a installation team installing
Siemens Microwave equipment at various sites in France. We also maintained
the tower at SHAPE Headquarters outside Paris, France. Climbing the
towers was what I really enjoyed doing over there. (I had a love /
hate relationship with that tower. It was over 100 ft high and 12"
wide ) We also maintained the lights on the Armed Forces Network tower
in Heidelberg, Germany. Whenever any tower had two or more tower lights
burn out, we had to go at a moments notice by plane or truck to replace
them as soon as possible. We used to be on TDY most of the time over
there. Would you believe that the army paid us $19.00 a day to go
to Paris, France. That was SHAPE site. I have been there at least
We had our barracks in Heidelberg at the Patton Barracks. Near the
end of my tour there, our company moved to a location just outside
of Mannheim. I am not sure of the name of the barracks there. In between
that time, the company moved to Seckenheim for a short while. I still
try to find some of the guys I worked with over there. No luck yet.
I came to Germany from Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, where I went to
Microwave radio repair school for 32 weeks. My class was going to
Korea when they finished school. I did one week of class over again,
and I ended up going to Germany (smile). I came to the 4th Sig Grp
as a PFC. After two years I became a Spec 5.
|(Source: Annual History, U.S. Army, Europe, 1 January -31 December 1966)
|The 4th Sig Gp and its subordinate units were transferred from USAACOM to STRATCOM-EUR on Aug 25, 1966.
|If you have more
information on the history or organization of the 4th Sig Gp, please
|(Source: STARS & STRIPES, March 2, 1963)
|The USAREUR Signal Center celebrated its 1st anniversary (at Campbell Bks) on March 1, 1963. CO of the Signal Cen is Lt Col Vernon B. Drum.
Units assigned to the Signal Center:
Communication Center Branch
Supply and Service Division
These units enable the Signal Center to provide HQ USAREUR with all forms of communications facilities.
Local communications include a 2800-line dial telephone exchange and a 26-position toll switchboard which provides the Army Flight Operations Center (FOC) with direct service to 36 air traffic centers throughout Germany. The telephone exchange is also USAREUR's major switching center for international calls.
The Signal Center provides direct distant dialing to all military exchanges in Germany. A new transistor dial system is currently being installed that will provide the same capability between militarty posts in Germany and France.
The communications detachment links HQ USAREUR with Army Global and Theater teletype nets. These nets use high-speed semi-automatic teletype equipment and teletype conference and facsimile devices.
The Radio Branch operates voice, teletype and manual radio facilities -- both fixed-station as well as mobile. These facilities are part of the administrative net and are used for tactical purposes as required. The Radio Branch also operates a MARS radio station.
from Melvin Glover)
SO #220, 9 Noc 1966
||I was assigned to the USAREUR Signal Center from December 1963 (designation: USAREUR US Army Signal Center (3733), APO 403, NY, NY) , thru November 1966 (designation: HQ Co, USAREUR Sig Cen, APO 09102).
When I arrived it was called Signal Support Company and just a little while later was changed to USAREUR SIGNAL CENTER. Prior to my arrival, I don't know the dates, the unit was billeted at Hammond Barracks in Seckenheim. I don't know when they moved to Heidelberg.
When I arrived we were billeted at Patton Barracks in building 114 which still exists today. The Signal Center Headquarters / CommCenter was in building 22 at Campell Barracks. Telephone Exchange in Building 7, Campell Barracks. MARS Station was at Patton Barracks. The (unit's) Motor Pool was located at NEUOSTHEIM which is between Seckenheim and Mannheim. Also, there was a section at Neuostheim that had something to do with radio frequency direction finding. Transmitter Site at Edingen which was close to Seckenheim. Supply/S-4 was at Campell Barracks and other smaller sections that I don't recall.
The Center Commander was a LT.COLONEL. From what I understand sometime in the mid 1970's the name of USAREUR SIGNAL CENTER ceased to exist due to a re-organization of the Signal Corps.
The Signal Center was a 24 hour a day operation with shift workers.
Upon arrival we wore the USAREUR shoulder Patch then later due to
changes in the Signal Corp we wore the STRATCOM Patch. Also, upon
my arrival we were under the 4th Signal Group and on my depature in
1966 we were under the 516th Signal Group.
Just recalled some other information that might be of interest. USAREUR HEADQUARTERS had a train (engine with 3 or 4 cars). The Signal Center was responsible for the maintenance of the Radio equipment on board the train. Also the Signal Center furnished the radio operator. (Usually a SGT E-5 in rank was the Radio Operator for the train.)
Any time the train pulled out the Radio operator was on board. This was a plush job. If you did not screw up you got a promotion. Dont recall which USAREUR COMMANDING GENERAL, it could have been General Freeman, liked to listen to the latest news from AFN each morning as he had breakfast on the train. The radio operator had the job of recording the news and playing it to the General as he dined.
I was not one of the radio operators but several times I went aboard the trains to change out communication equipment for maintenacne. There were actually two trains if I recall right . . . one had more cars than the other. The cook on the train was an enlisted man. I can recall one cold night when we were working he fixed some sandwiches and coffee for us. We thought that was a big deal sitting in the General's train having a snack.
Service Unit, Frankfurt
from David C. Freed)
|I was in the
3816th Signal Service Unit,
Frankfurt, Germany from 1966 to 1969, working mostly comm centers
in several locations.
Sometime in late 1966, the 3816th was dropped from the unit's name,
and we were simply known as "Signal Service Unit,
Frankfurt", or SSU. Around that time, STRATCOM was taking
over most Signal units in Europe as the Army was building a new Signal-oriented
kingdom for itself. Prior to that time, the USAREUR Signal units came
under an umbrella organization (but not necessarily a separate command)
which was then called STARCOM. STARCOM was an acronym for "Strategic
SSU Frankfurt hosted a large, Major Relay Torn Tape Relay Station
at the IG Farben Building in downtown Frankfurt, which was my duty
station. It's root routing indicator was RUFM, and it had at least
70 circuits in those days, maybe many more. In addition, SSU-F handled
MARS, Telephone exchanges, ELLA Long Lines, and had numerous detachments
and spin-off units operating in such exotic parts of Germany as Würzburg,
Fulda, Giessen, Hanau, North Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, and numerous other
locations. When STRATCOM came along, 4th Signal Group eventually went
away. It was replaced by "USASTRATCOM-Europe", with the SSU's immediate
HQ unit being in Munich in the 4th follow-on elements.
I would be happy to pass on what I know of my own experiences with
4th Sig Gp and specifically, Signal Service Unit in Frankfurt and
Frankfurt Major Relay Station (and some of it's tribs). You should
organize a 4th Signal Group veterans groups on the Internet. I am
sure there are several of us still around who would like to "talk
shop" once more. FYI, I'm still in the commcenter business, although
it's changed dramatically since the 50s and 60s. I'm a Defense Contractor
and COMSEC Custodian for a larger contractor and PSA (SSO) among other
things and hats..... (a far cry from being a First Sergeant!). All
my co-workers are former GIs too, mostly MI guys and senior officers.
It's amazing how time "flies". Thinking back, it's been almost 40 years since I was there! The last tape relay that I worked in was VII Corps, 34th Signal Bn (Stuttgart) in the mid-1970s during combined WINTEX/REFORGER exercises. By then, all of the Army's tape relay equipment had been consigned to the junk dealers and scrappers, and we had to make do with TT-76s as the prime relay gear.......(what a fiasco that turned out to be!).
Loved the concept of the tape relay station, and enjoyed the work. Aside from it being phased out, by the 1970s, few in the Army even remotely remembered how TRCs work. Neighboring NATO countries had relays, but nothing on the order (size) of what we had.
I spent some time with the 4th CMBG (Canadian Mechanized Battle Group) in Lahr, Germany. They too had a tape relay, but it was a small thing compared to what we had.....
|RESPONSE TO MYSTERY PHOTO #7 (link):
I was browsing your excellent sites of the US Army, Germany a few days
ago, and noted a 1956 photo of the rear, left side of the IG Farben Bldg
in Frankfurt. There was a question near the photo as to "what" the antenna on
the roof went to.
I will try and answer that for you.
I believe it was to the US Army MARS Station that was located in
the Rotunda of the IG Farben Bldg. The MARS station had been
established sometime in the 1950s, and was the very first thing
anyone saw or noticed when they entered the building from the front
(street) entry. This MARS station was magnificient - it was large, nicely paneled,
and was certainly a show piece to any visiting officers, dignitaries
or enlisted troops. It was run by GIs, mostly with MOS 05C20 (Radio
Teletype Operator). The station had a large compliment of HF radio
equipment, including at least 3 R-390/URR receivers and an assortment
of transmitters, converters and at least one Radio Teletype (RATT)
position. The RATT position was a TT-7/TG or TT-9/TG (Model 15 or Model 19
teletypewriter, painted a light gray color). It operated at 60 wpm and was
used to send MARSGRAMS - and sometimes, to copy News broadcasts
from the various news agencies who still operated commercial RATT (RTTY)
in those days.
Actually, there should have been three (3) such antennas on top of
the Farben Bldg -- all spaced equi-distant from each other along the
back side of the roof line. That's because the MARS station had three (3)
transmitting positions, each requiring separation from each other due to
the nature of HF radiation.The antenna mast(s) that are pictured most likely had dipoles or rhomics
running between each mast. I recall seeing wires running from antenna
mast to antenna mast in the 60s. Also present, were guy wires for
each mast (to hold the antenna mast upright).
It is possible that in later years, these antennas might have served other
purposes for other organizations. They were there in the 60s when I was
there. When I returned to the IG Farben Bldg (by then, renamed the
CW Abrams Complex) in 1985 thru 1988, these antennas were gone.
I first saw the MARS station upon my arrived at the IG Farben Bldg in
1966. The MARS station was operated by the Signal Service Unit,
Frankfurt (3816th Signal Service Unit, 4th Signal Group). In 1966, the
4th Signal Group was a USAREUR unit; around 1967, it became a
After Signal Service Unit, Frankfurt was reorganized as the 102nd Signal
Bn, the new organization didn't want anything to do with MARS. By that
time, the Army overall was downsizing most of it's MARS operations,
with MARS becoming less and less important to the Army mission.
Many fixed-station MARS facilities became the ward of tactical units
who operated them sporadically.
This MARS station was closed and dismantled sometime in the mid-70s.
All cabling, conduits, flooring and the paneled room that the MARS
station occupied was all physically removed and replaced with a
collection of displays of NATO country flags, and some indoor trees
and other large plants, and a sitting area in the Rotunda, which became
a lobby. This was during the CW Abrams Complex tenure of the IG Farben
Not related, but also noteworthy, behind the IG Farben Bldg (CW Abrams
Complex) was a large, 300 ft or 400 ft antenna structure, painted red and
white. This belonged to the 4th Signal Group (Signal Service Unit, Frankfurt,
and later, the 102nd Signal Bn). Mounted on this antenna were several
VHF parabolic dishes. This antenna structure had been there at least
since the 1960s, and possibly earlier.
With the 1980s advent of terrorist activities against US military installations in
Europe, the 102nd Signal Bn had a German contract scrapper come in
and take the structure down. It took less than 2 weeks to bring it down,
piece by piece. It was sold for scrap. In it's place, a hardened, pre-existing concrete water tower was used as
a replacement antenna structure. It was near where the old antenna was
located, and was unpainted, concrete. The parabolic antennas (dishes)
were affixed to the top of this structure, and it remained as such until the
CW Abrams Complex building was vacated by the US Army and turned
back over to the Germans sometime in the late 80s or early 90s.
As a matter of interst, both the old red and white metal antenna structure
and the newer concrete water tower structure were both highly visible
from as far away as Drake-Edwards Kaserne in North Frankfurt (3rd
Armored Division HQ).
from David C. Freed)
RUFM - Major
Tape Relay Station Frankfurt
An Account of 4th Signal Group's 3816th Signal
Service Unit, Frankfurt, Germany
From 1966 to 1968, and it's Major Tape Relay Station, RUFM….
the 4th Signal Group
was headquartered at McGraw Kaserne, in Munich, Germany. It was
served as a tributary off of the Frankfurt Relay station, using
the routing indicator RUFMBM.
In March 1966, I arrived in Frankfurt, Germany, as a 17 year old
right out of AIT 72B20 USASESCS Signal Corps school at Fort Gordon,
After reading the accounts of the 4th Signal Group on the web site,
I was surprised that there is no mention of any of the 4th Signal
Group's 1960s-era units in Germany. So far as I am aware, there
were two (2) relatively large elements which belonged to the 4th
during the period of my assignment which lasted until late 1968.
3816th Signal Service Unit (SSU), located in Frankfurt,
Germany, and it's sister unit, Signal
Service Unit, Nurnburg. I don't know too much about the
SSU Nurnburg, but since I was in SSU Frankfurt, I will talk about
Sometime after my arrival (March 66), the "3816th" part of the unit's
name was dropped. My original assignment orders from Fort Gordon
were to the 3816th SSU, but the locals just referred to the unit
Upon arrival, the "new guy" orientation included about 3 days of
rigorous training, indoctrinations, security briefings, SAEDA briefings,
crypto briefings and TA-50 issues from the local CIF activity (field
gear). In 1966, SSU Frankfurt was a USAREUR asset, as USASTRATCOM
had not yet come of age in our part of the world. We were however
told that we (our unit) was part of STARCOM which was an acronym
for Strategic Army Communications, the forerunner of what later
became a unified STRATCOM. Our shoulder patch was the US Army Europe
(USAREUR) patch, and for unit crests, all we wore the small, metal
USAREUR crests which were miniaturized (metal) versions of the USAREUR
The mission of the SSU Frankfurt was to support the Frankfurt Area
and some surrounding areas in wide-area Army communications requirements
which included telephone services, dial central office exchanges,
MARS stations, several commcenters, ELLA Long Lines, data-link (card)
communications in the pre-AUTODIN age. Frankfurt was located in
the "Taunus District" of Germany in a day when the US Army still
honored German states in it's hierarchy system of units (which it
ceased to do in the early and later periods). Units and commands
supported were: EUCOM, USAREUR and V Corps primarily on the large
scale, and numerous others locally and further away. SSU Frankfurt
was a greatly-oversized battalion performing a signal brigade's
amount of work in both a geographic and technical sense.
IG Farben Bldg
HQ V Corps
commcenter (Frankfurt Relay) was located in the basement of
the former IG Farben Building in downtown Frankfurt. At one
time, this was said to have been General Eisenhower's Headquarters,
and was the original headquarters for Supreme Headquarters Allied
Forces Europe (SHAEF) after WW II. SHAEF later became SHAPE
and was headquartered first in France, then later (and today)
in Belgium. Sometime in the mid-70s, the IG Farben Building's
name was changed to the "C. W. Abrams Complex" and the "complex"
included all of the allied buildings occupied the the US Army
in the local area. It's ironic in that the German IG Farben
Chemical Company in the 1940s, for whom the building was both
named and constructed for is the same company that perfected
Zyklon B gas used in the Waffen-SS Concentration Camps to exterminate
the Jews. While I was there, there had been no reference to
any of this history either by the US or the Germans. The IG
Farben Building was in fact the Headquarters for the US Army's
| My own involvement
begins in the Frankfurt Commcenter. Upon arrival, I was told that
SSU Frankfurt operated a large Major Relay station, and that this
station was the Army's 3rd largest relay station in all of Europe.
I am further surprised that there is no mention of Frankfurt Relay
in any historical documents anywhere in any of the signal unit histories
either in or out of the Army. In any event, the routing indicator
of Frankfurt Relay, as it was called, was RUFM. RUFM consisted of
a large tape relay bay (online operations), a floor-services section
(RUFMCM), an off-line crypto section (RUFMCR), a Methods and Results
(M&R) section (RUFMCI), a good-sized terminal station (V Corps commcenter
as well as the relay stations's terminal, RUFMC, and a terminal services
section (RUFMCS). In addition, the relay bay contained numerous circuits
seemingly going everywhere at once. There were always 2 of everything:
2 "Command" circuits to USAREUR/7th Army in Heidelberg, Germany (RUFPAG);
2 circuits to USAF Primary Relay Station (RUFP) in Siegelsbach, Germany;
2 circuits to Pirmasens Major Relay, (RUFD). We also had some circuits
to a couple of minor relay stations: RUFMW and RUFDZ. Then there were
the local-area commands and their circuits: 3rd Armored Division in
N. Frankfurt, (RUFMAD) , 8th Infantry Division in Bad Kreuznach, (RUFMEI),
3rd Infantry Division, Wurzburg, (RUFMAZ) 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment,
Fulda (RUFMAF), Giessen Support Center + units (RUFMAE), 212th FA
Group, Herzo-Base, Stars and Stripes Newspaper in Darmstadt
(RUFMDS) and of course, all of the V Corps tactical circuits (UUFOV,
UUFOVA, UUFOVB, etc). There was also 1 newly installed (temporary)
circuit to RUFG in France, and 2 circuits to the USA Berlin Brigade
(RUFPHA) in Berlin, E. Germany. The Berlin circuits were our "best"
circuits, as these were landline links with 100% reliability, probably
because the East German Army (and the Russians) took very good care
of the lines in the hopes that they might eventually learn something
from monitoring them. Unfortunately, they were secured by KW-26s,
so it's doubtful they got anything useful off of them.
My life at Frankfurt started as a traffic "expediter", or what we
called a "tape ape". My job was simple: push and pull tape from one
circuit to another. I would be required to roam the entire relay bay
looking for arriving messages and TDs needing to be fed more tape.
Then there were the hourly requirements to send, receive and account
for channel checks. In between all of this, monitor reels had to be
monitored, changed and replaced on all machines, as they filled up,
chad bins had to be emptied and trash had to be bagged. Being that
we were a "major" relay, there was lots and lots of tape, often enough
to keep us waste-deep in the stuff for most of our shift. The relay
station was often hot, and the tape was oiled, so the place always
had a "hot, oil" smell to it. It was also very noisy, and I soon realized
that I did NOT like working in the relay station at all. On the afternoon
and night shifts, were wore fatigues and were allowed to work in our
(white) T shirts, due to the heat. Air conditioning in those days
was a luxury not always available in the commcenter. The online crypto
room by comparison, had great (and lots) of cool air conditioning.
They had rows and rows of KW-26s, and those beasts needed the cool
air in order to function, as did the KW-7 circuits.
One of the jobs I was occasionally assigned to perform was that of
ZVA tape cutter. The ZVA position was a multiple-call processing unit
consisting of 1 printer and a TD and several reperforators. The idea
was to produce a single tape for each addressee called in format line
two of a multiple call message (make a bunch of little ones out of
one big one). Frankfurt Relay had 2 ZVA positions in those days. Originally,
the ZVA positions (2 of them) consisted of German T-100s and associated
reperfs, but over time were replaced with 100 WPM US Kleinschmidt
TT-98 printers, a TT-122 TD (transmitter-distributor) and 7 or 8 TT-107
reperfs (tape cutters). These Kleinschmidts gave much trouble, as
they required near constant maintenance all of the time (typical of
most Kleinschmidt teletype equipment of the time).
Sometimes, we had "dud" operators. They were usually assigned jobs
as "link" men performing circuit HJs on KW-26s. Their jobs entailed
moving a TT-98 on a wheeled table from one KW-26 to another about
every 15 minutes or so to change over a circuit. We had a lot of circuits,
so this was a full time job. Other "duds" were assigned bagging trash
duties, emptying chad bins, sweeping floors, and changing tape reels
on receiving reperforators and monitor reels machines. There was never
a shortage of dummies in the commcenter! Consequently, they came up
with or kept alive such interesting references to "tape stretchers",
"boxes of channel numbers", "jars of RF", and cases of "LTRS keys".
Frankfurt commcenter (the relay) also had a Technical Control section
in-house. The sign over it's doorway read "FAX Control" which I assumed
stood for Facilities Control. Within Tech Control was a "Cross-Office"
function and an "Order Wire" system, of which I knew very little about.
There was also a section called "Patch and Test" and several techs
who worked there.
The equipment at Frankfurt Relay was an odd set up in that we had
seen nothing like any of what those guys were using in AIT. We had
been trained strictly on US equipment made by Kleinschmidt and Teletype
Corp. Everything from TT-4s to the old OD colored "coke" machines
used in relay's to some older Model 15s and Model 19s out of the 1940s.
Frankfurt had none of this. What they did have was a large amount
of German-built Siemens teletypewriter equipment. I do not know the
nomenclature of the German relay equipment, only that it was built
specifically for the US Army and no one else and it was very, very
reliable. The page printers of the day were called T-100s, also built
by Siemens and incorporated built-in tape gear along with printers
and separate DC power supplies. These machines performed on and off
line, and were excellent "poking position" machines.
Across the hallway, was stored large amounts of Kleinschmidt tape
relay machines arriving by the truckload from Signal units allegedly
in France. These were AN/TGC-5 tape relay banks, along with numerous
AN/FGC-25X table-mounted printers, TDs and reperforators, TT-98s,
& TT-107s, etc. These were to replace all that German equipment, as
Siemens had told the US Army that it would no longer manufacture teletype
equipment for the Army.
The "French" connection: This was around the time that the then erstwhile
President of France (Charles DeGaulle) had "invited" US Forces to
vacate his country, and we in Frankfurt were receiving both some of
their gear and their troops. One contingent of 72Bs arrived at Frankfurt
one day from a commcenter whose routing indicator was RUFGAE saying
they were from Orleans, France. We put them right to work……and were
glad to have them. For what it is worth, before arriving in Germany
in 1966, my original 72B20 orders from Fort Gordon were to the 1st
Logistical Command (COSCOM) in France, but for reasons already mentioned,
I was diverted to Frankfurt. Several folks from RUFG in France came
to Frankfurt looking for both a home and job, and many were eventually
assigned to us in late 1966, while others went to Italy.
Back in the commcenter, the shift supervisor for the relay part of
the shift roamed the floor and hounded the tape apes. I eventually
went to work in another section of the commcenter referred to as the
"off line crypto section". This was a throw back to the WW II years
and was in a separate part of the commcenter where things were very
quiet. We had such exotic things to work with called KL-7s, KL-47s
and HL-1s and we spoke in "5 letter" code groups. My NCOIC there was
from the 32nd Signal Bn and this part of the commcenter was a "Restricted"
area - no one could get in, unless you had specific business there.
This was good because it kept the Trick Chief and some of the noisy
guys out of our operation. Half the time, we couldn't get the HL-1s
or the KL-7s to work right, so a great deal of our time was spent
in utter frustration trying to manually decode received traffic which
had arrived 2 shifts prior, and for which pressure was on to further
reduce "handling" time. The off-line crypto facility had it's own
routing indicator off the relay floor: RUFMCR. Whenver an "off line"
message arrived in the relay for an RUFM addressee, they sent it too
us for decoding over a "room circuit". Once it was decoded, we retyped
it in "English" and resent it back to the relay floor over the same
room circuit where, presumably, it was transmitted further over one
of Frankfurt's own tribs to destination or delivered locally via message
center (A&D Clerk).
The operators and staff make-up of those folks who operated the commcenter
(terminal and relay and all other areas) came from both Signal Service
Unit, Frankfurt and from folks assigned to V Corps's 32nd Signal Battalion
out of McNair Kaserne (Hoechst/Frankfurt). The 32nd Sig Bn guys belonged
to V Corps and were supposed to support the tactical requirements
when the Signal Bn went to the field. In garrison, they worked the
fixed-station with the rest of us. The Shift Supervisors could be
from either unit. The OIC and NCOIC belonged to Signal Service Unit,
as did the COMSEC Custodian.
Sometime in late 1967, a new breed of signal officer showed up at
Frankfurt Relay. They called themselves "STRATCOM" and said they were
taking over our operation soon. They wore a funny looking shoulder
patch, which was orange and white and had what we soon dubbed an "electric
basket ball" in the center which was said to represent the "world".
No one ever told us "what" world that was. In any event, the patch
also featured a lightning bolt going through the "world", so we called
it the "world divided by a lack of communication". There was some
truth in that monicker…….
STRATCOM eventually took over our operation as promised in 1967. 4th
Signal Group then became part of STRATCOM or USASTRATCOM-Europe, as
it was later known. Immediately, we began having major problems with
the new command. The first thing STRATCOM did was boot out all of
the resident signal guys from the 32nd Sig Bn, which cut our manpower
nearly in half over night. The second major blunder was an agreement
STRATCOM made with the outlying tactical units for which our relay
supported circuits to provide both terminal equipment and operator
personnel to support their fixed-station requirements. By the time
STRATCOM got done supplying operators (72Bs) to such places like Wurzburg,
Bad Kreuznach, Giessen, Fulda, Hanau, Babenhausen, there were few
left to operate the relay in Frankfurt. Most supported units received
at least 2 operators from Signal Service Unit. I was one who got farmed
out to the 14th Armored Cavalary Regiment in Fulda, to work in the
Regimental Commcenter (RUFMAF). While it was a great assignment, compared
to working in Frankfurt, it was also busy. I was still assigned to
STRATCOM Signal Service Unit, so didn't have to hassle with all of
the 14 ACRs day to day tactical requirements. RUFMAF also had two
(2) additional circuits of it's own that we had to operate in addition
to the main Frankfurt Relay circuit. Other outlying units also had
numerous additional circuits (for instance, 3ID out of Wurzburg had
9 circuits). In addition, all of these units were OPCON to V Corps
and so had their tactical commcenter circuits as well (field circuits)
and their radio-teletype (RTTY/RATT) links to deal with. This was
interesting and provided us 72Bs a great Insight into the different
methods of passing traffic, since we soon became involved with it
whether we liked it or not. Enter such new things as "UU' routing
indicators and radio and RATT call signs. Actually, it was a fun time,
because we got to see, learn and experience communications in a manner
different from simply being a teletype operator. We also got to use
something besides the same old gray Kleinschmidt gear. There were
R-390 radio receivers, TT-4s, TT-76s, TH-5s and other interesting
gadgets to keep us both interested and occupied. The tactical units
exposed us to other things as well, such as Radio Relay Carrier (VHF
circuits), wire lines (wire dogs), something new called RWI (radio
and wire integration) and FM antennas. To add to the interest, there
was the NATO "interoperability" thing ongoing at the time, which brought
us in line with the local German Army whose only claim to fame in
the teletype world was VHF RTTY using Siemens T-100s and similar looking
routing indicators like RGFFL, or UK units using teletype machines
made by Creed (which were as bad as Kleinschmidts and never worked).
French and Turkish signal guys were even worse….but more about those
folks in another post.
After STRATCOM took over our relay station, all that Kleinschmidt
teletype relay gear was finally installed and made operating. It worked
very well for a couple of years. Many of the supported outlying commcenters
also received Kleinschmidt teletypewriters from Signal Service Unit
in Frankfurt. These were mostly AN/FGC-25Xs to replace existing TT-76s,
TT-4s, German T-100s and Lorenz LO-15s (German licensed version of
the US Teletype Corp Model 15s).
STRATCOM did not have a unit crest for the Signal Service Unit in
Frankfurt, nor was one ever forthcoming. Prior to the advent of STRATCOM
taking over our unit, SSU had a previously awarded Meritorious Unit
citation from a previous conflict. This was worn on the lower left
sleeve of the dress uniform and was in the form of a small patch with
a gold wreath. Later, this award was redesigned as the current Meritorious
Unit Citation Ribbon and was worn on the right side of the breast
above the right coat pocket. STRATCOM disallowed the wear of this
decoration by all of the troops assigned to SSU. (In retrospect, probably
because it was not earned by STRATCOM since at the time it was awarded,
STRATCOM did not exist. In those days, there was no "grandfathering"
in STRATCOM for pre-STRATCOM members of the unit). The 3816th Signal
Service Unit members also wore, and were encouraged to wear, the Signal
Corps orange ascot (bib scarf) which may of us did with our fatigues
and khaki uniforms. Under STRATCOMs tenure, these too were outlawed.
STRATCOM became to us, a generic, sanitized unit or what many would
eventually refer to as a "slave" ship operation. Professional Army
standards and decorum appeared to go away with the new management
and was replaced with a cold sense of apprehension, uncertainty and
tension……and was further aggravated by the arrival of a new, mean,
self-righteous Sergeant-Major who would go on to terrorize the unit
and some of the neighboring entities as well. His actions would facilitate
a unit rebellion which ultimately would cost the unit commander his
Most of the circuits in Frankfurt Relay were full-duplex, 60 WPM with
the exception that Heidelberg, Berlin, Siegelsbach, Pirmasens (and
all the other relay stations to whom we were connected), were 100
WPM. We had several half-duplex KW-7 circuits which were 60 WPM, as
were all of the tactical circuits in those days.
All of the RATT/RTTY links were KW-7 circuits, and they too were set
up for 60 WPM.
Once STRATCOM settled in, both the character and make-up of the unit
and it's mission changed dramatically. Under USAREUR, we had run our
operation like every other place in the Army with a lot of spit and
polish, inspections, good soldier discipline, pride, and efficiency.
With STRATCOM came a lot of animosity in the ranks, "make work" assignments,
harassment, security violations, and a general distrust of one another
and a breakdown in troop discipline. One of the things STRATCOM created
in the relay and in other units was the phrase "F- the position, police
the position" which suggested that cleaning equipment, waxing and
buffing commcenter floors, shining boots and having starched fatigues
was more important than performing our mission of moving traffic,
even to the point that our Commander would literally shut down the
entire operation on a whim if he wasn't satisfied with how the floors
looked. It was ludicrous, the crap that was coming our way! Some of
this nonsense culminated in a serious mutiny (1968) in the unit and
our commander was eventually relieved (fired). The Overseas Weekly
of the era had a field day with the story. In all fairness to STRATCOM,
they were truly in their "growing" period. Within STRATCOM, particularly
USASTRATCOM-Europe, things would get a lot better very quickly to
a point where everyone would eventually seek to be a member of this
organization if they were a Signal Corps member.
Once STRATCOM took over our relay station, it became readily apparent
to most of us, (even the lower ranking troops) that there was animosity
brewing between "our" outfit and the local Security units. This meant
the Army Security Agency (ASA) folks who were responsible for insuring
compliance at the time with Army Regs and other national security
directives regarding COMSEC, security, etc. The ASA inspectors would
arrive for a security inspection and made it known that they were
here to "shut down the commcenter" any way they could from a security
standpoint. What we didn't know at the time was that STRATCOM also
wanted to shut down the Frankfurt Relay, but for a different reason.
AUTODIN was on the horizon, and Frankfurt Relay was not going to be
part of AUTODIN because it would no longer be needed.
In late 1968, we began to see more changes take place at Frankfurt
Relay. One of the most significant events was the activation and start-up
of the new Pirmasens
AUTODIN Automatic Switching Center (ASC). It carried
the routing indicator RUFT and came online in late 68. It's immediate
effect was to diminish the importance of both Frankfurt (RUFM) and
Pirmasens (RUFD) torn tape relay stations. RUFT had the effect of
reducing both facilities to Minor Relay station status. One by one,
Frankfurt Relay's major circuits were rehomed to RUFT (Pirmasens).
Along with these changes came changes in routing indicators for Frankfurt
and many of it's tributary stations. RUFM became RUFTTBA. Giessen
became RUFTTBD, etc Not long afterward, I left the Signal Service
Unit in Frankfurt and the 4th Signal Group to serve in the 21st Signal
Group in Vietnam. That was yet a different take on the Signal Corps
and is a story for another time……
In 1987, I was fortunate in that I was once again assigned to Frankfurt,
courtesy of the US Army. Naturally, I took a look at the old place,
including the spaces once occupied by both Signal Service Unit, Frankfurt,
and it's Major Relay Station. Absolutely nothing remained, nor did
any of the soldiers there at the time have any recollection of any
of the foregoing, including the current, resident Signal Battalion
The unit's barracks area was now a German-owned and rebuilt apartment
complex (on Henry Budge Strasse). The IG Farben Building still stood,
but was now renamed the CW Abrams Complex. No one there at the time
I was there in 1987-88 even recalled the name IG Farben Building.
The tape relay was long gone. The space was in use as part of a very,
very large SCIF by an INSCOM unit to which I was assigned as the SSO.
All tech control, relay bays, terminals, wiring, and crypto rooms
were long gone, as were their walls, partitions, cross offices, patch
and test facilities and other associated technical trappings. The
area was one large room, mostly used for storage. The then current
SSO shop did have a DSSCS (back channel) multi-circuited commcenter
using Teletype Model 40 teletype equipment and KW-26s still along
wth some of the newer AN/UGC-74s (teletypewriters) and KG-84s (crypto
units) These were operated by the SSO which belonged to the 302d MI
What was left of the Signal Service Unit in Frankfurt and other areas
(then) belonged or reverted to the follow-on organization which was
present: 102nd Signal Bn, 2nd Signal Brigade of the 5th Signal Command
(formerly USASTRATCOM). Those folks still had the same general mission
as the old SSU-Frankfurt, and they still had a good-sized commcenter
operation using something called an AMME, or Automated Multi-Message
Equipment system, essentially an automatic minor relay for the local
area. USASTRATCOM or STRATCOM went away to become the US Army Communications
Command (USACC), which later became the US Army Information Systems
The 32nd Sig Bn no longer had a part in the current fixed-station
operation. They continued however to operate their tactical teletype
circuits at the CW Abrams complex inside tactical vans (AN/MSC29s
and AN/TSC-58s, mounted on 2 ½ ton trucks) and doing a brisk telecomm
business. The 102nd's AMME facility had been relocated to the CW Abrams
'annex' an add-on facility next door to the main building. The large,
beautiful MARS station that once adorned the rotunda to the IG Farben
building was dismantled by the 5th Signal Command and had been replaced
by a display of NATO flags. Typical of 5th Signal Command thinking,
everything has been downsized, greatly automated and severely undermanned.
They called that progress!
A list of some of the routing indicators that Frankfurt Relay served
is available from memory, if anyone is interested. While they serve
no purpose today, they are great for discussions. In those days, we
used ACP-127 as our Bible and surprisingly, it's still out there and
can even be downloaded from the Internet, along with other ACPs.
Having walked the relay bays at Frankfurts Tape Relay (RUFM) during the 1960s as a "tape ape", I had pretty much memorized all of the circuits and their Routing Indicators.
What follows is somewhat of a reconstruction of some of them, although the list is not yet complete. Perhaps you can add them to the segment for the Signal Service Unit Frankfurt (3816 Signal Service Unit, USAREUR (later USASTRATCOM).
Many of these stations had circuits of their own that emanated to many of the smaller Kasernes all over Germany. I do not have a list of these. However, in the Army, teletype circuits were everywhere.....and everyone was served. Anyone who did not have access to a CommCenter teletype facility then generally had access to Radio Teletype (RATT) which was a part of the CommCenters operation too (FM 24-17). Many NATO circuits were included too, but again, at this point, I don't have all of them listed, since I am still researching them.
The W. German Army played a big role here too, especially their III Korps out of Koblenz, GE ("Deutscheseck"). They operated 3 large tape relays:
1 at Koblenz in the "fortresss";
1 at Massweiler; and
1 at Teufelsberg...
Massweiler became a NATO facility and Teufelsberg became an Intel operated CommCenter in later years by various "spook" outfits
Main RUFM circuits, 1960s
|Click here for an extensive list (not complete) of the old Frankfurt Tape Relay RUFM -- Tributary Stations and 7th Army Tactical routing indicators.
Frankfurt, prior to 1960, was "RUFY". It was the V Corps CommCenter
and while the Routings changed over the years, V Corps stayed in the
Frankfurt (IG Farben Bldg, later CW Abrams Complex) until the Iraq
war dragged them into that part of the world.
The V Corps CommCenter in later years, became an AMME facility -- minor relay, and was such right up until I left in 1988.....for all fixed-station traffic. Tactical vans were always parked out back of the HQ building and these housed all of the tactical and NATO circuits to which V Corps connected with.
Army Major Sig Relay Center-Saran
from Tim Casey)
| I was stationed
in Saran, France, 1961 to 1965 and our unit's headquarters was the
4th Signal Gp in Heidelberg.
The ACAN facility in Saran, France, had various unit designator over
the time it was active. It started out as the 7774
Sig Unit, then came under the Sig Service
Bn-Europe, then US Army Major Sig Relay
Center-Saran, and finally was US Army
Stratcom Fac-Saran, France.
Met and married my wife there in Saran. In addition, I also served
in the 73d Sig Bn, and 2nd Sig Gp and 22d Sig Gp, and the 160th Sig
Gp, and the 5th Sig Command. Finally retired as Bn SGM of the 43d
|(Source: Ted Kwarchak)
|I would be very interested in hearing from anyone who has information about these pictures and the Saran Tape Relay Facility. Please contact contact me.
Signal Corps Facility-Saran, France - Tim Casey's personal
website - has some great photos of the Receiver (St. Lye) and Transmitter
|Signal Service Bn 4
|(Source: STARS & STRIPES, July 8, 1967)
|Three signal companies (previously attached to the 1st Sig Gp in France) that provide signal support to ComZ have been relieved from attachment to the 1st and attached to STRATCOM's 4th Sig Gp. The three companies are the 256th, 269th and 532nd Signal Companies.
It was announced that all signal support to ComZ will become the responsibility of the 4th Group (excluding depot signal maintenance and photographic support).
As part of the reorganization, the three former TOE companies have been reorganized as TDA units and redesignated as Signal Service Units Worms, Sandhofen and Zweibrücken. Furthermore, the three SSU's will make up a new battalion to be designated as Sig Svc Bn 4, under Capt David C. Anderson, acting commander.
July 1962 issue)
of the US Army 4th Signal Group, with
headquarters in Heidelberg, Germany, has been announced by Colonel
William Scandrett, Commanding Officer of the US Army Signal Brigade,
Colonel John P. Scroggs, former Deputy Commanding Officer of the Signal
Brigade, was named to command the 4th Signal Group, having an authorized
strength of almost 2,500 personnel.
The mission of the 4th Signal Group is to install, operate and maintain
the Army portion of the World-wide Defense Communications System in
Europe, the US Military Microwave Radio Relay System in Europe and
to provide communication support for Headquarters, USAREUR.
The European portion of the Defense Communications System consists
primarily of long-range high frequency radio, and leased long lines.
The 4th Signal Group operates Defense Communications System relay
centers at Pirmasens, Germany; Saran, France and Leghorn, Italy. The
Group also operates the Signal Center, USAREUR, at Heidelberg, Germany.
The Army portion of the US Military Microwave Radio Relay System in
Europe consists of 49 separate, fixed radio stations scattered throughout
Germany and France and is operated by the 102nd Signal Battalion of
the Group. The Group also operates the 2,800-line dial exchange serving
USAREUR Headquarters, Heidelberg.
Communications Squadron, Siegelbach, Germany - great site
with lots of history, photos and other information going back to 1953.
Siegelbach was a major teletype relay station and later AUTODIN station
near Kaiserslautern that was operated by the Air Force. (Broken LINK)
||CommCenter Yahoo Group - this is a discussion group with focus on Communications Centers (fixed-station, tactical, mobile and shipboard). (Facilities covered include teletype, torn tape relay, AUTODIN and DMS.) Membership is restricted.